Why Am I Allergic to French Bulldogs? Exploring Hypoallergenic

You are allergic to French Bulldogs because they produce allergenic proteins in their skin and saliva. French Bulldogs can trigger allergies due to the allergenic proteins present in their skin and saliva.

This breed of dog is known to produce higher levels of these proteins compared to other breeds, making them more likely to cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. These allergenic proteins can be inhaled or come into contact with the skin, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, watery eyes, itchy skin, and respiratory problems.

Understanding the specific allergens produced by French Bulldogs can help individuals with allergies manage their symptoms and make informed decisions about pet ownership.

Understanding The Biological Factors

Exploring the specific proteins and allergens present in the breed can shed light on why some people experience allergies to these adorable pets.

French Bulldogs are a popular breed known for their compact size, adorable faces, and friendly personalities. However, for some individuals, being around these lovable dogs can trigger allergic reactions. To understand why this happens, we need to explore the biological factors that contribute to allergies in French Bulldogs.

Understanding The Biological Factors

Genetics And Allergic Reactions

  • Genetics play a significant role in determining an individual’s susceptibility to allergies. When it comes to French Bulldogs, certain genetic factors can increase the likelihood of allergic reactions.
  • Allergies are often an inherited trait, meaning they can be passed down from parent dogs to their offspring. If one or both of a French Bulldog’s parents have allergies, there is a higher chance that the puppy will develop allergies as well.
  • Dogs with a genetic predisposition to allergies may produce excessive amounts of allergenic proteins or have a weakened immune system, making them more prone to allergic reactions.

Breeding Practices And Allergenicity

  • Breeding practices also influence the allergenicity of French Bulldogs. Breeders who prioritize reducing allergenicity can selectively breed dogs with lower allergen production.
  • Some breeders focus on breeding hypoallergenic or low-shedding French Bulldogs. These dogs produce fewer allergens or have hair that is less likely to trigger allergies in susceptible individuals.
  • The selection and pairing of dogs with lower allergenicity traits can ultimately reduce the likelihood of allergic reactions in French Bulldog offspring.

The Role Of Protein And Dander

  • Proteins found in a dog’s saliva, urine, and dander are the primary culprits behind allergic reactions. When a sensitive individual comes into contact with these proteins, the immune system reacts, causing symptoms such as sneezing, itching, or even respiratory distress.
  • French Bulldogs, like all dogs, produce these proteins, but the amount and type of protein can vary among individuals. Some proteins are more likely to trigger allergies compared to others.
  • Dander, the dead skin cells shed by dogs, is a common source of allergens. It can easily become airborne and cause allergic reactions when inhaled.
  • Regular grooming and cleaning practices that minimize dander and protein accumulation on a dog’s coat can help reduce the potential for allergic reactions in susceptible individuals.

Genetic factors, breeding practices, and the presence of allergenic proteins and dander contribute to why some people may be allergic to French Bulldogs. By understanding these biological factors, breeders and individuals can make informed choices to minimize allergenicity and ensure a more comfortable environment for everyone.

Common Allergens In French Bulldogs

French Bulldogs are known to produce common allergens that can cause allergies in some individuals. These allergens can be found in their dander, saliva, and urine, which can trigger allergic reactions such as sneezing, itching, and

French Bulldogs are adorable and loving companions, but for some, being around these furry friends can lead to allergic reactions. Understanding the common allergens associated with French Bulldogs can help you manage your allergies better. Let’s take a closer look at the different types of allergens that can trigger reactions in individuals who are allergic to French Bulldogs.

Pollen And Outdoor Allergies:

  • Pollen: French Bulldogs can carry pollen on their fur when they spend time outdoors. This can be an issue for individuals with pollen allergies.
  • Outdoor Allergens: French Bulldogs may come into contact with outdoor allergens such as grass, weeds, and trees, which can trigger allergic reactions in susceptible individuals.

Household Allergens And Indoor Triggers:

  • Dander: Like many other dog breeds, French Bulldogs produce dander, tiny flecks of skin that can cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals.
  • Dust Mites: French Bulldogs spend a lot of time indoors, and dust mites, which are commonly found in households, can accumulate on their fur. This can be a problem for people who are allergic to dust mites.
  • Mold Spores: Mold can grow in damp areas, and if your French Bulldog spends time in these areas, they may carry mold spores on their coat, which can trigger allergies in some people.

Food Allergies And Sensitivities:

  • Protein Sources: French Bulldogs, like any other dog breed, can have food allergies or sensitivities. Common allergenic ingredients in dog food include beef, chicken, wheat, soy, and dairy products.
  • Food Additives: Some French Bulldogs may be sensitive to food additives, such as artificial preservatives, colorings, and flavorings, which can cause allergic reactions.

Allergies to French Bulldogs can be caused by various allergens, including pollen, household allergens, and food ingredients. By understanding the common triggers, you can take steps to minimize exposure and manage your allergies effectively. Remember to consult with a healthcare professional or allergist for personalized advice and treatment options.

Please note that this blog post is for informational purposes only and does not replace professional medical advice.

Diagnosing Allergies In French Bulldogs

Allergic to French Bulldogs? Discover how to diagnose allergies in these adorable canines and understand why some people may have allergic reactions to them.

Allergies in French Bulldogs can be a perplexing issue for both dog owners and their furry companions. If you suspect that your French Bulldog is suffering from allergies, it’s crucial to understand how to diagnose and address these concerns effectively.

Here, we’ll discuss the process of diagnosing allergies in French Bulldogs and explore the steps involved.

Recognizing Allergy Symptoms

  • Skin irritation and itching: If your French Bulldog consistently scratches, licks, or rubs its skin, it may indicate an allergic reaction.
  • Red and inflamed ears: Allergies can cause your French Bulldog’s ears to become red, swollen, and itchy.
  • Frequent sneezing: If your French Bulldog sneezes frequently, it could be due to an allergic reaction.
  • Runny or itchy eyes: Allergies may cause your dog’s eyes to water, itch, or appear red and inflamed.
  • Gastrointestinal issues: Allergic reactions can also manifest as stomach upset, diarrhea, or vomiting in French Bulldogs.

Consulting A Veterinary Specialist

When you notice persistent allergy symptoms in your French Bulldog, it’s important to consult a veterinary specialist who can provide expert guidance and help pinpoint the specific allergen causing the reaction. Veterinary specialists are trained to diagnose allergies accurately and prescribe appropriate treatment plans tailored to your French Bulldog’s needs.

During the consultation, the veterinary specialist may:

  • Collect medical history: The veterinarian will gather information about your French Bulldog’s medical history, including any known allergies or previous treatments.
  • Conduct a physical examination: A thorough physical examination will be performed to assess your dog’s overall health and identify any visible signs of allergies.
  • Ask about the environment: The specialist may inquire about your French Bulldog’s living conditions and potential exposure to allergens.
  • Evaluate symptoms: The vet will carefully evaluate the symptoms exhibited by your French Bulldog to narrow down the potential allergens.

Diagnostic Tests And Allergy Panels

To determine the precise cause of allergies in French Bulldogs, veterinary specialists commonly employ various diagnostic tests and allergy panels. These tests aim to identify the specific allergens triggering the allergic reactions in your furry friend. Common diagnostic methods and tests include:

  • Intradermal skin testing: A series of small amounts of potential allergens are injected into your French Bulldog’s skin to determine which substances elicit an allergic response.
  • Serum allergy testing: Blood samples are collected and analyzed to assess your dog’s immune system response to specific allergens.
  • Elimination diet trials: Your veterinary specialist might suggest a special diet plan to eliminate potential food allergies as a cause.
  • Environmental testing: Allergen-specific IgE blood tests can detect your French Bulldog’s sensitivity to specific environmental allergens, such as dust mites, pollen, or mold.

By utilizing these diagnostic tools, veterinary specialists can identify the underlying cause of allergies in French Bulldogs more accurately. This knowledge helps develop effective treatment plans to alleviate your dog’s discomfort and improve their overall quality of life.

Remember, if you suspect your French Bulldog is suffering from allergies, seeking professional guidance from a veterinary specialist is essential for an accurate diagnosis and comprehensive treatment approach.

Lifestyle Modifications For Allergic Dog Owners

Lifestyle Modifications For Allergic Dog Owners

Allergic to French Bulldogs? Discover lifestyle modifications for allergic dog owners to help manage allergies without compromising on pet ownership. Find practical tips and strategies to create a healthy and enjoyable environment for both you and your furry friend.

Allergies can be a real challenge, especially when you have a furry friend like a French Bulldog. But don’t worry, there are steps you can take to minimize the allergic reactions and still enjoy the company of your beloved pet.

In this section, we will explore some lifestyle modifications that can make a significant difference for allergic dog owners.

Minimizing Allergenic Exposure

To keep your allergies in check, it’s important to minimize your exposure to allergens that your French Bulldog may carry. Here are some effective ways to accomplish this:

  • Limit contact: Avoid close contact with your dog, especially in areas like your bedroom or other areas where you spend a lot of time.
  • Keep them outside: Consider designating specific areas of your home as off-limits to your Frenchie, such as bedrooms or certain furniture.
  • Use allergen-resistant covers: Protect your mattresses, pillows, and furniture with allergen-resistant covers to prevent allergens from settling in.
  • Invest in an air purifier: Use an air purifier with a HEPA filter to remove allergens from the air, creating a cleaner environment.

Creating A Hypoallergenic Environment

Creating a hypoallergenic environment for both you and your French Bulldog is crucial in managing allergies. Here are some tips to make your home more allergy-friendly:

  • Regular cleaning: Vacuum and dust frequently to remove allergens that may accumulate in your living space.
  • Choose hard flooring: Opt for tile, laminate, or hardwood floors instead of carpets, as they are easier to clean and trap fewer allergens.
  • Clean the dog’s bed: Wash your Frenchie’s bed regularly to keep it free from allergens.
  • Remove clutter: Minimize clutter in your home as it can trap allergens and make cleaning more difficult.

Regular Grooming And Cleaning Practices

Consistent grooming and cleaning practices are key to reducing allergens in your home. Here are some actions you can take:

  • Bathe your French Bulldog regularly: Regular bathing can help remove dander and reduce allergens on your dog’s coat.
  • Brush your dog outside: Brushing your Frenchie outdoors can help prevent loose hairs and dander from spreading throughout your home.
  • Clean your dog’s paws: Wipe your dog’s paws with a damp cloth after outdoor walks to remove allergens they may have picked up.
  • Clean your home regularly: Regularly sweep, mop, and dust to minimize the presence of allergens in your living space.

By implementing these simple lifestyle modifications, you can significantly reduce your allergic reactions to French Bulldogs and enjoy the company of your pet without compromise.

Nutrition And Allergen-Free Dog Food Options

If you’re wondering why you might be allergic to French Bulldogs, it’s likely not because of their nutrition or allergen-free dog food options. Understanding the specific allergen triggers related to French Bulldogs can help you find ways to manage your allergies.

Frequent sneezing, itchy skin, and watery eyes are just a few of the unfortunate symptoms experienced by people who are allergic to French Bulldogs. However, did you know that your beloved four-legged friend can also suffer from food allergies? Many French Bulldogs are prone to food sensitivities, which can lead to digestive issues and skin problems.

Fortunately, there are steps you can take to alleviate their discomfort and improve their overall well-being. One of the most effective ways is by providing them with a nutritionally balanced and allergen-free diet. In this section, we will explore various options for choosing the right diet for your allergic dog.

Choosing The Right Diet For Allergic Dogs:

  • Grain-free dog food: Many dogs with food allergies are intolerant to grains such as wheat, corn, and soy. Opting for grain-free dog food can help eliminate potential allergens and provide a balanced diet for your French Bulldog.
  • Limited ingredient dog food: These types of dog foods contain a minimal number of ingredients, making it easier to identify and avoid potential allergens. They usually focus on a single protein source, such as lamb or salmon, along with easily digestible carbohydrates.
  • Novel protein dog food: If your French Bulldog has developed an allergy to a specific protein source, switching to a novel protein dog food can be beneficial. These diets feature novel or unusual protein sources like venison, duck, or kangaroo, which your dog may not have been exposed to before and are therefore less likely to induce an allergic reaction.
  • Hydrolyzed protein dog food: Hydrolyzed protein dog food is specially formulated for dogs with severe allergies. The proteins in the food are broken down into smaller molecules, reducing the likelihood of an allergic reaction.

Identifying And Eliminating Food Allergens:

  • Keep a food diary: Documenting your dog’s meals and any adverse reactions can help you identify potential food allergens. Look out for patterns and common ingredients in the meals when a reaction occurs.
  • Elimination diet: An elimination diet involves removing all potential allergens from your dog’s diet and then gradually reintroducing them one by one, observing for any allergic reactions. This process can help pinpoint specific ingredients that trigger sensitivities.
  • Consult with a veterinarian: If you suspect your French Bulldog has food allergies but are having difficulty identifying the specific allergens, it’s essential to consult with a veterinarian. They can conduct allergy testing and provide guidance on the best course of action.

Nutritional Supplements And Remedies:

  • Omega-3 fatty acids: Supplementing your allergic dog’s diet with omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce inflammation and alleviate skin irritations caused by food allergies.
  • Probiotics: Probiotics promote a healthy gut by introducing beneficial bacteria, which can aid in digestion and strengthen the immune system. They may also help alleviate symptoms associated with food allergies.
  • Digestive enzymes: Adding digestive enzyme supplements to your French Bulldog’s diet can assist in breaking down food particles, making it easier for them to digest and absorb nutrients.

By choosing the right nutrition plan for your allergic French Bulldog and eliminating potential food allergens, you can improve their well-being and provide them with a healthier and happier life. Don’t forget to consult with a veterinarian for professional advice tailored to your dog’s specific needs.

Allergy Medications And Treatments

Discover effective allergy medications and treatments that can help alleviate symptoms caused by French Bulldog allergies. Find relief from sneezing, itching, and congestion with targeted solutions designed to address your specific allergic reactions.

For individuals who experience allergies to French Bulldogs, there are various allergy medications and treatments available to help manage symptoms and provide relief. Whether you opt for over-the-counter antihistamines, prescription medications, or immunotherapy, these options can help alleviate allergic reactions and improve your overall quality of life.

Over-The-Counter Antihistamines And Their Efficacy:

  • Over-the-counter antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergies caused by French Bulldogs.
  • These medications work by blocking the histamine response in the body, reducing symptoms such as sneezing, itching, and nasal congestion.
  • Some popular over-the-counter antihistamines include:
  • Loratadine: Provides effective relief for itching and runny nose.
  • Diphenhydramine: Offers fast-acting relief for multiple allergy symptoms.
  • Cetirizine: Known for its long-lasting effects in reducing allergy symptoms.
  • It’s important to remember that every individual may respond differently to antihistamines, and finding the right one for you might require some trial and error.
  • Always read and follow the instructions on the packaging, and consult with a healthcare professional if you have any concerns about using these medications.

Prescription Medications For Allergy Relief:

  • In cases where over-the-counter antihistamines are not sufficient, prescription medications can be prescribed by a healthcare professional.
  • Prescription-strength antihistamines are often stronger and provide more effective relief for severe allergy symptoms.
  • Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can help reduce inflammation caused by allergies and are commonly used for short-term relief.
  • Nasal corticosteroid sprays, like fluticasone, can help alleviate nasal congestion and inflammation.
  • Decongestants may also be prescribed to provide temporary relief from congestion associated with allergies.
  • It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using prescription medications, as they may have side effects or interactions with other medications.

Immunotherapy And Allergy Shots:

  • For individuals with severe allergies to French Bulldogs, immunotherapy may offer a long-term solution.
  • Immunotherapy, commonly known as allergy shots, involves a series of injections containing small amounts of the allergen over time.
  • The goal of immunotherapy is to desensitize the body to the allergen, reducing the severity of allergic reactions.
  • Allergy shots are administered by a healthcare professional and require a commitment to a regular injection schedule.
  • This treatment option can be highly effective for individuals with significant allergies, but it may take several months or even years to see the full benefits.

Remember, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional or allergist to determine the best course of action for managing your allergies to French Bulldogs. They will be able to assess your specific situation and provide personalized recommendations for allergy medications and treatments.

Coping Strategies For Allergic Dog Owners

As an allergic dog owner, you may wonder why you’re allergic to French Bulldogs. However, coping strategies such as regular grooming, allergy medication, and keeping a clean home can help you manage your allergies and enjoy your furry companion.

Living with allergies can be challenging, especially when you have a furry friend, like a French Bulldog, who you are allergic to. However, with the right coping strategies in place, you can still enjoy the companionship of your four-legged friend.

Here are some strategies to help you manage your allergies as a dog owner:

Managing Mild To Moderate Allergic Reactions

  • Create an Allergy-Free Zone: Designate a specific area in your home where your dog is not allowed, such as the bedroom or a certain room where you spend most of your time. This will provide you with a safe space free from allergens.
  • Regular Grooming: Adopt a regular grooming routine for your French Bulldog. Frequent brushing can help remove loose fur and dander, reducing the amount of allergens in your home.
  • HEPA Filters: Invest in high-quality air purifiers or HEPA filters for your home. These filters can effectively remove allergens from the air, providing you with cleaner indoor air quality.
  • Clean Regularly: Vacuum your home frequently, using a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter. This will help eliminate allergens that may have settled on carpets, furniture, and other surfaces.
  • Seek Medical Advice: Consult with your healthcare provider about appropriate over-the-counter antihistamines or other allergy medications that may help alleviate your symptoms. They can also guide you on whether allergy shots or immunotherapy may be a suitable option for you.

Emergency Preparedness For Severe Allergies

  • Always Carry Medications: Ensure that you carry your prescribed allergy medications, such as antihistamines or epinephrine auto-injectors, with you at all times. These can provide immediate relief and potentially save your life in case of a severe allergic reaction.
  • Inform Others: Make sure that family members, friends, and colleagues are aware of your severe allergies, especially if you spend time with them in environments where exposure to allergens is more likely, such as dog parks or pet-friendly establishments.
  • Wear Medical Alert Jewelry: Consider wearing medical alert jewelry that clearly indicates your severe dog allergies. This can be invaluable in emergency situations when you might not be able to communicate your condition.

Psychological Impact And Emotional Support

  • Seek Support: Reach out to support groups or online communities for allergic dog owners. Connecting with others who are going through similar experiences can provide emotional support and helpful tips for managing allergies.
  • Keep Communication Open: Talk openly with your friends and family about your allergies and the challenges you face as a dog owner. Their understanding and support can make a significant difference in navigating your allergic reactions.
  • Consider Working with a Therapist: If allergies significantly impact your emotional well-being, seeking professional help from a therapist or counselor who specializes in allergies or anxiety can be beneficial. They can provide guidance and coping strategies to manage the psychological impact of living with dog allergies.

Remember, while living with allergies as a dog owner may pose some challenges, with the right strategies in place, you can still enjoy the love and companionship of your French Bulldog. Stay proactive, seek professional advice when necessary, and surround yourself with a supportive network to make the most of your furry friendship.

Allergic Reactions In Other Breeds

Allergic Reactions In Other Breeds

French Bulldogs can cause allergic reactions in some individuals due to their dander and saliva. These allergens can trigger symptoms like sneezing, itchy eyes, and congestion in people who are sensitive to them.

Comparing Allergenicity Among Different Dog Breeds

  • Some dog breeds may trigger allergic reactions more than others due to their specific genetic makeup and the proteins present in their dander, saliva, and urine.
  • Though French Bulldogs are commonly known for causing allergies, it is essential to compare their allergenicity with other dog breeds before deciding which breed is suitable for allergic individuals.
  • Several factors, including the amount of shedding, hair length, and the dog’s overall cleanliness, can also impact the potential for allergic reactions.
  • Let’s explore how different breeds fare in terms of allergenicity:
  • Labrador Retrievers: These dogs tend to shed more, which can increase the presence of allergens in the environment. Their heavier shedding may trigger more allergies.
  • Poodles: Poodles have a reputation for being hypoallergenic, as their hair grows continuously instead of shedding. This attribute reduces the chances of allergens being released into the air.
  • Yorkshire Terriers: While they have long hair, Yorkshire Terriers shed less compared to other breeds. This can make them a better option for allergic individuals.
  • Golden Retrievers: These dogs are known for their beautiful, thick double coat. However, their shedding can be substantial, potentially leading to increased allergenicity.
  • Boxers: Despite having a short coat, Boxers still produce allergenic proteins. Their short hair may reduce the amount of hair-related allergens, but the overall allergenicity may still pose problems for some allergic individuals.
  • It is crucial to consider these differences when selecting a dog breed, as it can significantly impact the allergic reaction experienced by individuals with dog allergies.

Finding A Compatible Dog Breed For Allergic Individuals

  • While no dog breed is entirely hypoallergenic, certain breeds are known to be more compatible with allergic individuals due to their minimal shedding and lower production of allergenic proteins.
  • Consider the following factors when searching for a compatible dog breed:
  • Hypoallergenic breeds: Breeds like Poodles, Bichon Frises, and Schnauzers are often considered hypoallergenic because of their hair growth patterns. Their hair continuously grows instead of shedding, reducing the presence of allergens in the environment.
  • Non-shedding breeds: Dogs that shed less, such as Yorkshire Terriers, Maltese, and Portuguese Water Dogs, can also be suitable options for allergic individuals.
  • Smaller breeds: In some cases, smaller dog breeds produce fewer allergenic proteins, making them a good choice for those with allergies. Examples include Shih Tzus, Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, and Basenjis.
  • Regular grooming: Regular grooming, including brushing, bathing, and professional trimming, can effectively reduce allergens present in a dog’s coat and minimize allergic reactions.
  • It is crucial to spend time with the chosen breed before making a final decision. This allows for firsthand observation of any potential allergic reactions to ensure compatibility.

Allergies Beyond French Bulldogs: Insights And Considerations

  • While French Bulldogs are often associated with allergies due to their common occurrence in households, it is essential to recognize that allergies can stem from various sources, not limited to dog breeds alone.
  • Allergic reactions can be triggered by other factors, including:
  • Dander: Microscopic flecks of skin shed by pets, such as dogs and cats, can trigger allergic reactions in sensitive individuals.
  • Pollen: Allergies to pollens from trees, grasses, and weeds can lead to similar reactions as dog allergies. These allergies are often seasonal.
  • Dust mites: These microscopic pests thrive in household dust, bedding, and upholstery. Dust mite allergies can cause significant discomfort for individuals with sensitivities.
  • Mold spores: Mold can grow in damp environments, such as basements and bathrooms, triggering allergic reactions in susceptible individuals.
  • Cockroaches: In some cases, cockroach allergies can cause similar symptoms to dog allergies. Eliminating cockroach infestations is crucial in managing allergies.
  • Other pets: Allergies may arise from various animals, including cats, rabbits, and rodents. It is essential to take into account all potential allergens when considering pet ownership.
  • Understanding the range of allergens that can trigger reactions allows individuals to be mindful of their environment and take appropriate measures to minimize allergic symptoms.


Understanding why you may be allergic to French Bulldogs is crucial for minimizing your symptoms and finding the best solution for your situation. By considering various factors such as allergen exposure, individual sensitivities, and the breed’s specific characteristics, you can take steps to manage your allergies effectively.

Remember, regular grooming, keeping a clean living environment, and seeking professional medical advice are all essential in mitigating allergic reactions. Additionally, exploring alternative hypoallergenic dog breeds or considering other pet options may be worth considering if your allergies persist. Prioritizing your health and well-being, while still having the companionship of a furry friend, is possible with careful research and consideration.

So, take the time to understand your allergies and make informed decisions to create a safe and comfortable environment for yourself and your beloved pets.

Frequently Asked Questions For Why Am I Allergic To French Bulldogs

Can You Be Allergic To French Bulldog?
Yes, it is possible to be allergic to French bulldogs.

How Do I Get Rid Of My French Bulldog Allergy?
To reduce French bulldog allergies, try these remedies: 1. Keep your home clean and vacuum regularly to minimize allergens. 2. Create an allergy-free zone in your home where your French bulldog is not allowed. 3. Use high-efficiency air filters to trap allergens in the air.

4. Consider allergy medications or immunotherapy under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

How Do I Stop Being Allergic To Dogs?
To overcome allergies to dogs, consider these steps: 1. Consult with an allergist for allergy tests and diagnosis. 2. Avoid contact with dogs or create pet-free areas at home to reduce exposure. 3. Use allergy medications or nasal sprays recommended by a healthcare professional.

4. Consider immunotherapy, such as allergy shots, to build tolerance over time.

Why Does My French Bulldog Make Me Itch?
French bulldogs can make you itch due to allergens in their dander and saliva.

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